The Biodiversity Institute of Ontario includes four major research divisions:

1. Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding
2. BIO Herbarium
3. OAC Insect Collection
4. Experimental Ecosystems

Two of these, Experimental Ecosystems and the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, are based in the BIO building, while the Insect Collection is in the Bovey Building and the BIO Herbarium is in the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.